Depressed mood states are linked to ________ levels of serotonin and ________ levels of norepinephrine. low; low low; high high; low high; high

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Depressed mood states are linked to low levels of serotonin and low levels of norepinephrine. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are hormones released by the adrenal medulla and the nervous system respectively. They are flight/fight hormones that are released when the body is under extreme stress. Serotonin on the other hand is an important chemical and neurotransmitter that is believed to help regulate mood and social behavior, appetite and digestion, sleep, memory, and sexual desire and function.


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Depressed mood states are linked to low levels of serotonin and low levels of norepinephrine.It has been shown that serotonin and norepinephrine are involved in depression, the deficit in either neurotransmitter can cause depression. Thus, these neurotransmitters are targeted in antidepressants. For example, Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are one of the most commonly used class of antidepressant drugs that treat depressive disorders. The mechanism of this drug is to inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine, which results in their higher concentrations.


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